Discover the great civilization of the Nile valley-from the splendors of the pharaoh’s court to the everyday lives of ordinary people!

Egypt before the pharaohs

The period we normally think as “ancient Egypt” is the time when Egypt was ruled by the pharaohs-after c.3000 B.C. But who lived in Egypt before the pharaohs? In the early Stone Age people in Egypt lived on sites fairly high up on the land above the Nile from the Delta to Aswan. From about 5000 B.C., settlers came to Egypt from Palestine and Syria, from the Libyan tribes living to the west, and from Nubia in the south. Shortly before 3000 B.C., traders from southern Iraq also sailed to Egypt and some, attracted by the fertility of the country, stayed on. Soon these early settlers began to grow barley and domesticate cattle, and to build villages of mud huts in parts of the flood plain that seemed safe from the annual Nile flood. The period before 3000 B.C., has left behind objects such as magnificently carved ivories and slate palettes, as well as fine pots, often buried with their owners in brick-lined graves. To be continued…